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glossary

Buying Guides - Electronics Glossary

Have you ever wondered about some of the technical or specialist terms we use throughout our Electronics Shop? We've built a glossary of easy-to-understand definitions to help you...

 

A

Acoustic Suspension
A speaker system mounted in a sealed enclosure. The internal air loading adds damping and acoustical stiffness at low frequencies where the wavelength is larger than the enclosure.
Adjustable Surround Delay
Consists of receivers that incorporate surround sound modes that allow you to adjust a delay time between the front and rear speakers. This delay time resembles a short echo or reverberation in a hall or auditorium. Longer delay times will simulate larger halls. Shorter delay times will simulate smaller halls.
Advanced 6-Channel Search
A programmable TV feature, it allows you to program the 6-channel display by searching through all available channels or through your favourite channel memory. You simply press the search button on the remote and the television displays still images of 6 channels simultaneously on the right half of the screen, while allowing you to view the current program on the left side of the screen.
Ambience (home theatre)
Describes the effect of a home theatre system, where the room in which the system is used is given the sound and feel of other environments.
AMP
A measurement for electrical current.
Amplifier
A component used to amplify voltage or current. In audio systems, an amplifier is a circuit or component used for strengthening an audio signal.
Analog (audio)
Refers to sound stored or reproduced as an electrical signal analogous to the original sound wave.
Animation
Allows you to show objects by shooting one image at a time. When video is played back, objects appear to move on their own.
Anti-Shock Suspension
A system that will prevent the disc in a portable CD player from skipping while it's carried or used in a car.
Aperture
The opening within a camera lens system that controls the brightness of the image striking the film. The size of the opening is indicated by the f/number.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
The ability of a camcorder to make critical decisions in processing the video signal. It will make judgements based on light level to control the iris shutter speed, exposure control and white balance.
Artificial Intelligence Picture Control
Continuously monitors signal conditions to maintain a high degree of contrast in the picture. It looks at all areas of the picture at the same time. If a particular area is too light, AI Picture Control can darken that area without affecting the black level or brightness in the overall picture.
Artificial Intelligence Sound Level Control
Controls the volume level automatically to prevent wide variations in volume among different TV channels and types of programming.
Aspect Adjustment Capability
A feature of various 'image' devices including camcorder, digital still and DVD. It lets you choose from display modes, depending on the format of the received signal and your viewing preference. The Zoom Mode allows you to enlarge the picture uniformly to full screen width and then reposition the picture vertically.
Aspect Ratio
Refers to the shape of picture appearing on TV screen. The ratio compares the width of the picture to the height. Standard TV broadcasts and cablecasts use a 4:3 aspect ratio, while most movies are shot in an approximately 16:9 ratio.
Audio Output, Fixed
Fixed Audio Outputs provide a fixed level audio signal that can be connected to an A/V receiver. This connection will bypass the volume and tone controls of the TV's audio circuit.
Audio Outputs, Variable
Variable Audio Outputs let you take advantage of the great sound an external stereo system can deliver. Just connect the audio output jacks of the TV to the AUX inputs of your stereo system and you're ready to enjoy outstanding stereo sound. Best of all, you can adjust the volume level (and tone, if available) through the TV remote control.
Auto Clock Set
This feature automatically adjusts the TV's clock to the correct time by reading the time from the local cable provider's station.
Auto Exposure Control
Automatically senses the ambient light intensity and adjusts the aperture and shutter speed for optimum exposure or turns the flash on if required. To take a good picture, the camera must allow precisely the correct amount of light to hit the film. This quantity of light can be controlled by making the opening at the lens wider or narrower or by controlling the amount of time that the shutter remains open to allow light to pass through. Inexpensive cameras may have no adjustments at all. Many cameras control the size of the lens opening, called the diaphragm or iris. They provide a wide opening for low sensitivity films, or low light conditions, and small openings for high sensitivity films or bright light conditions.
Auto Flash
A small photoelectric sensor on your camera measures the amount of ambient light and turns the flash on automatically when needed.
Auto Focus
Selects the best focus positions depending on the subject distance. This system uses an infra-red transmitter and an infra-red receiver linked via an electronic logic circuit to a motor which moves the lens back and forth in minute steps. When the shutter button is pressed an infra-red pulse is sent from the camera. The receiving cell measures the strength of the returned pulse and the logic circuit translates this strength into a "camera to subject" distance. This information is then used to activate the electric motor that positions the lens to produce the sharpest image.
Automatic Exposure (AE)
Selects the fastest shutter speed for your camera according to the amount of light available.
Automatic Music Search
With this feature, the tape deck allows direct access to a desired track on a cassette tape by briefly pressing the forward or backward key.
Automatic Phosphor Aging Compensation (APACTM)
APAC functions only when black bars are present, either during letterboxed material or when viewing a 4:3 image on a 16:9 television. When these bars are present, APAC imperceptibly moves the image up and down, or to the right and left, one pixel at a time. APAC acts as a screen saver for the television. Plasma monitors are more prone to image burn in, meaning that after continuously watching material where black bars are present, these lines could be permanently burnt into the phosphors. APAC can significantly reduce the change of burn-in.
ATRACTM Compression (SONY)
ATRAC technology compresses audio files by removing all of the sounds the human ear cannot hear, thereby maintaining audio quality and providing more music storage capability. At the highest compression level, a person could record up to 5 hours of music on a standard 80-hour Mini Disc (up to 490 songs on one CD-R/RW disc).
Automatic Source Selection
This feature will automatically switch to a new source and pause the previous source. For example, if the CD is playing and the tuner button is selected, the CD will be paused and the system will switch to the tuner mode.
Auto Program Tuning
This feature will automatically store 30 preset stations in a TV's or VCR's memory.
Auto Programmable Scan
Allows you to check all available channels in your area (or on your cable system) and automatically tunes them into memory. You can then add or delete the channels of your choice.
Auto Repeat
Allows the VCR to automatically rewind and begin playback when the a tape finishes playing.
Auto Reverse
This feature will automatically reverse the direction of the tape at the end of each side of the cassette for extended listening. Some decks have this feature in both record and play modes, others in play mode only.
Auto Search Tuning
Initiates the tuner's search until a radio station of sufficient strength has been found. Weak stations are skipped during automatic search.
Auto Tape Type Select
Automatically selects the tape type, Ferro, Chrome or Metal (Type I, Type II, Type IV), as soon as the cassette holder is closed.
Auto Tracking
This VCR feature automatically finds the best tracking position for optimum picture and sound.
Auto Volume Limiter System (AVLS)
A feature on many personal stereos, it refers to circuitry that manages the audio signal to prevent distortion due to volume peaks.
A/V Input Jacks
Audio/video input jacks allow you to connect external sources to your TV quickly and easily. These jacks connect your sources directly to audio and video circuits of the TV set, bypassing the tuner for optimum picture and sound reproduction. The video input is a composite video input.
A/V Integrated Amplifier
An audio/video receiver that doesn't have a tuner. This type of receiver is an option when radio access isn't desired.
A/V Preamplifier/Processor
A surround sound processor that also has inputs, outputs and signal routing for audio and video source components.

B

Bandwidth (audio)
The frequency range that a device or component is capable of reproducing from low to high.
Bass Reflex Speakers
A speaker design that uses the cabinet to produce low bass frequencies by incorporating a tuned port.
Bar Code Programming
Allows use of a wand or remote control to set VCR programming by scanning bar codes.
BBE Audio Enhancement
Restores the audio phase to improve clarity of TV sound. These are found mainly on AIWA tabletop systems.
Bias (recording)
A high frequency current applied to the record head along with the audio signal. It is necessary for reducing distortion and increasing sensitivity during recording.
Big Screen TV Set
Any set with a screen size of 27 inches or larger. Considered a requirement for a home theatre system.
Bitstream Digital to Analog Conversion
The most accurate method of digital to analog conversion. It converts information on a bit by bit basis.
Blank Search Blank
Search fast forwards or rewinds to find the beginning of an unrecorded spot on the tape.
Bluetooth® Wireless Technology
Revolutionizes the personal connectivity market by providing freedom from wired connections - enabling links between mobile computers, mobile phones, portable hand-held devices, and connectivity to the internet.

C

Cable Compatible
A cable compatible VCR will let you tune in most unscrambled cable channels without the need for an external channel converter box, if cable service is available.
Call Display/Caller ID
LCD display showing the incoming caller's name and phone number. The display shows the date, time and the caller's name and number. This feature requires a subscription to a service from your local phone company. An added dimension of caller ID is that it allows you to keep a record of incoming phone numbers.
Call Display with Visual Call Waiting
Lets you see the name and phone number of an incoming call even while you're talking on another call.
Camera Angles, Selectable
Selectable camera angles are ideal for sporting events on DVD. This feature allows you to choose from different shots of the same scene recorded on the disc. MPEG decoder buffer memory helps maintain continuity with this feature.
CCD (Charge-Coupled Device)
A computer chip covered with thousands or millions of light-measuring cells that convert light into electrical signals and allow you to capture an image.
CD Synchro Recording
Allows a cassette deck and a CD player to communicate. One button synchronizes the start of a recording on an analog or digital compact cassette deck with the start of a CD or a CD program.
CD Text Display
Automatically shows the disc track and names of compatible CDs. In addition, disc names automatically enter Custom File Memory - no typing required.
Centre Channel
With centre channel, the front centre speaker in a Dolby® Pro-Logic® and Dolby® Digital surround system has four centre channel modes. Choose Normal when you have a small centre speaker; Phantom, for no centre speaker; Wide when you have a full-sized centre speaker; or Centre Off when you are sending the centre channel information to another amplifier via the centre channel preamp output.
Centre Channel
Input Uses the special speaker terminal input found on certain models so a television can be used as the centre speaker for Dolby® Pro-Logic® surround sound systems.
Centre Speaker
A key component of a Dolby® Pro-Logic® and Dolby® Digital equipped home theatre system. This speaker handles a vast majority of a program's dialogue, and typically sits on top of or directly below the TV cabinet.
Channel Balancing
A process that equalizes the level of each speaker in a home theatre system. This feature uses a test tone generated from the receiver and is controlled with keys on the component's remote control. Channel balancing must be performed from the primary seating position.
Channel Labelling
A feature that assigns an ID of one to four characters on a maximum of 30 channels. This feature comes in handy when cable systems reassign different channel numbers to familiar network stations.
Channel Labelling with Presets
Allows you to create 10 of your own labels, select from 48 preset captions and assign them to the channel numbers in your area.
Channel Search
Scans available channels in the picture-in-picture inset. On selected models you can choose to search a favourite channel memory or all available channels.
Chapter Preview
Allows you to refresh your memory when you have only watched part of a movie and are viewing it again at a later time. This feature automatically shows you the first three seconds of each previously viewed chapter and then proceeds with normal play once it reaches the position where you left off.
Chasing PlaybackTM (Panasonic)
Users can begin watching a program, even while it is still recording that same program.
Character Generator
Allows titling of videos direct from camcorder or with add-on accessory. Can be programmed with often-used titles or with an alpha numeric keypad for custom titles.
Clipping Distortion
With the clipping distortion feature, the peaks of the output wave are "clipped" off, avoiding distortion that results from driving an amplifier beyond its limit.
Closed Caption Decoder (CC on Mute)
Allows you to read on-screen subtitles and other information that accompanies selected television programming. Closed captioning allows the hearing impaired to more fully enjoy television viewing and can also be helpful in improving English language skills. You can program closed captioning to activate every time the mute key is pressed on the remote.
Colour Matrix Adjustment
With the colour matrix adjustment, your television automatically adjusts the colour parameters for 1,080I, 720p and 480p transmissions. When viewing a non-standard digital TV format, you can change the colour parameters manually for the best picture quality
Colour Picture-in-Picture (PIP)
Capability Superimposes a small inset shot from an alternate video source (VCR, DVD player, alternate TV channel or surveillance camera) into the full screen image on televisions. The smaller picture can be located in any corner of the screen, interchanged with the larger image and frozen on screen.
Colour Temperature Control
Allows the user to customize picture and white balance to their own personal taste by using three selectable settings.
Colour View Finder (CVF)
Lets you monitor your camcorder picture in actual colour.
Comb Filter, 2-line Digital
The 2-line digital comb filter employs digital circuitry to electronically separate the colour from the black and white in a composite video television signal. The filter compares adjacent scan lines to determine which pair of lines is the most similar (or correlated). Using this correlation, the advanced digital comb filter can minimize dot crawl and cross-colour interference.
Comb Filter, 3-line Digital
The 3-line digital comb filter provides a very accurate means of separating the colour from the black and white in the television signal. The filter works with three lines of picture information and is effective in removing dot crawl and hanging dots, both vertically and horizontally.
Comb Filter, 3D Y/C
The 3D Y/C digital comb filter performs field-by-field comparisons of the television image to accurately separate the colour from the black and white information. The filter removes dot crawl and hanging dots, both horizontally and vertically.
Commercial Skip
Returns your TV to your original channel at end of a countdown timer so you can channel surf through commercial breaks.
Compander Noise ReductionTM
Developed by Sanyo, Compander circuitry is the state of the art in cordless telephone noise reduction. Unwanted noise is compressed and the voice signal is expanded. As a result, cordless telephone conversations can be almost entirely free of noise and static.
Component Video Inputs
Component video inputs (Y/Pb/Pr) consist of the luminance signal (Y) and two separate chrominance signals (Pb and Pr). These inputs provide outstanding resolution and colour accuracy for video images. Televisions with component video inputs can accept either progressive or interlaced signals from a variety of sources, including DVD players and digital TV set-top boxes.
Component Video Switching
Component inputs on a receiver let you switch between multiple component video sources and is compatible with Progressive Scan Video.
Composite Video Inputs
A video signal in which brightness (luminance) and colour (chrominance) are combined into one signal. Composite video inputs and outputs use RCA jacks.
Component Video Signals
Assure more precise colour reproduction than a composite or S-video signal. Component video output terminals allow for the transmission of digital video to compatible video equipment with component video inputs.
Compression
Allows the storage of a two-hour movie on one DVD disc. Compression technology works by analyzing the video data and minimizing the need to store repetitive data. Over 95 percent of video data is redundant, so it can be compressed without any noticeable effect on picture quality.
Computer VGA Input Jacks
Front and back computer jacks. The front input provides a convenient point of hookup for a laptop computer, while the desktop computer occupies the rear input. Switching from front to rear is easily accomplished through the on-screen menu system.
Continuous Play
With the continuous play feature, when the cassette ends in one deck, playback of the other cassette begins. Dual cassette decks will play two tapes in a series.
Crossover Frequency
The frequency at which the crossover network routes the audio signal to the correct driver (speaker).
Crossover Network (speakers)
Consists of a "switching box" in a loudspeaker that splits the audio signal for each driver (speaker).
Cue and Review (cassettes or CD players)
Lets you speed through the music on a cassette deck or CD player to find a particular location.

D

DAT (Digital Audio Tape)
A digital audio recording format that combines the 16-bit audio quality of CDs with the recording capability of a small tape.
Decibel (dB), loudness
A numeric expression of the relative loudness of a sound. The minimum change in sound intensity that a human ear can distinguish is approximately 3 dB.
Delay
Part of a Dolby® Pro-Logic® (DPL) or Dolby® Digital scheme. The signal heading for the surround speakers is delayed to help them simulate ambience. Most DPL processors have adjustable delay. Twenty milliseconds is the DPL standard. The greater the delay time, the larger the simulated environment appears to be.
Digital Answering System
In a fully digital answering system, both incoming and outgoing messages are recorded on integrated circuitry (a memory chip). This feature allows certain messages to be erased while preserving others, regardless of their recorded time.
Digital Comb Filter
Converts chroma (colour) and luminance (detail, black and white) information into digital code and eliminates video noise. The end result is improved picture quality and colour purity without dot crawl. Dot crawl occurs when edges of the picture move and appear wavy or shaky.
Digital Convergence
Refers to the alignment of red, blue and green at a common point on a projection TV screen to produce white. In projection TV models with this feature, the red, blue and green images converge at more than 165 independent points on the projection screen. This method assures a more accurate initial convergence setting at the factory and a decreased likelihood that the convergence will require adjustment in the home environment. If adjustments are necessary, a repair person can readily make them with greater accuracy and in less time than with conventional methods.
Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
A single computer chip that allows artificially intelligent systems to set optimum exposure and maintain colour fidelity automatically.
Digital Sound Control (DSC)
Allows the user to select from different sound settings that are optimized for certain types of music, such as jazz, rock and classical.
Digital Sound Processor (DSP)
Provides sound field control.
Digital Spread Spectrum
Transmits or spreads the telephone signal over many frequencies per second, bringing unprecedented range and security to your cordless conversations.
Digital Surround Sound
Gives you six channels of discrete digital audio. Dialogue, background music and other effects are distinctly reproduced for extraordinary realism.
Digital Video Noise Reduction
Compares the picture signals for individual pixels of two consecutive fields, then removes the noise components that exist in both the luminance and chrominance portions or the signals.
Digital Zoom
Electronically extends a camcorder's or digital camera's built-in optical zoom capability and expands the range of focal length adjustment.
Digital-to-Analog (D/A)
Converters Changes digital data from a disc or tape into an analog signal that can be amplified and heard through headphones or speakers.
Direct Digital Recording
With direct digital recording, digital compact cassette (DCC) decks use digital inputs and digital outputs from CD players or receivers to create crisp, clean digital recordings without the noise associated in the usual digital to analog conversions of regular analog cassette decks.
Direct Frequency Tuning
Allows direct access to a desired radio station by entering exact digits of that station by using remote control or buttons on the front panel of the receiver.
Direct Preset Access
Permits direct access to a preset AM or FM radio station by using the receiver's remote control.
Direct Stream DigitalTM Encoding (DSDE)
A technology used by SACD (SONY) systems. The key advantage of DSDE is that it can carry 4 times as much information as the conventional CD/PCM format. DSDE also has a superior frequency response and dynamic range across the audible frequency range.
Direct Track/Disc Access (Direct Play/Program)
This feature allows you to listen to the track or CD of your choice without having to scroll through all the CD's tracks.
Direct-view TV
Set The formal name for a standard, one-piece TV with a picture tube.
Disc Exchange
Lets you listen to the disc inside a multiple CD changer while you change the other discs that you are not playing - continuous music without interruption.
Dolby® B & C Noise Reduction
Two systems of noise/hiss reduction invented by Ray Dolby. The systems work by boosting high frequencies during recording (also called encoding) and attenuating the frequencies during playback (also called decoding).
Dolby® Digital Surround Sound
A proper DDSS system features six components: two front speakers, a centre speaker, two rear speakers and a subwoofer.
Dolby® HX Pro Headroom Extension System
Improves recording performance on tapes by preventing large high frequency signals from overloading the tape. A tape recorded with the HX Pro System can be played on any other cassette deck and still retain the benefits of HX Pro.
Dolby® Pro Logic® (DPL)
A processing mode for A/V components and the current standard for handling surround sound soundtracks in a home theatre system. Signal steering and delay are crucial for DPL performance.
Dolby® Pro-Logic® Surround Sound
Creates a very realistic soundfield. There are four components: front left channel, front centre channel, front right channel and rear channel. The front centre channel contains mostly dialogue and centre sound effects. The front left and right speakers contain directional sounds. The rear speakers help to re-create the reflective ambience of the original room in which the audio was recorded. This system generates short echoes and delays that help make the entire audio experience more lifelike.
Dolby® Surround Pro Logic®
Soundtrack is 4 channels of audio information - left, centre, right and surround matrix, encoded into 2 audio tracks. These 2 tracks are then carried on stereo program sources such as videotapes and TV broadcasts into the home, where they can be decoded to recreate the original 4 channels and the surround experience.
Dolby® Surround Pro Logic® II
An improved matrix decoding technology that provides better spatiality and directionality on Dolby Surround program material, providing a convincing three-dimensional soundfield on conventional stereo music surroundings.
Driver
A sound-producing device. It is also another word for loudspeaker. The woofer, midrange and tweeter are the "drivers" in a speaker enclosure.
Dubbing
Allows you to add video or audio (or both) to tapes. Video dub inserts new video segments into previously recorded material without interrupting the existing soundtrack. Audio Dub records a new soundtrack onto finished videos from VCRs, cassettes or from a microphone.
DVD
Similar to a CD-ROM, but able to hold more information-up to 17 gigabytes. DVD is also a disc that will hold full feature length movies.
DVD-Audio/SACD Ready
Receivers that are DVD-Audio/SACD ready enable an outboard digital decoder to be added to the system. A receiver is considered "future compatible" if it offers 6.1 channel outputs that can be used with a DVD-Audio/SACD player.
DVD-RAM
A recorder which allows the user flexibility of starting to watch a program from the beginning as soon as they wish while still recording the end.
Dynamic Bass Boost (DBB)
A special circuit that helps create realistic bass production. Boosting the bass as much as eight decibels (nearly three times more than normal) allows the sound to be rich at all volume levels.
Dynamics
Describes the way that a home theatre system renders soft as well as loud sounds. A system with good dynamics renders all sounds in natural, lifelike, three-dimensional proportions.

E

Electronic Image Stabilization (EIS)
Digitally compensates for unwanted hand movement to make the camcorder picture more stable.
Electronic Skip Protection (ESP)
A feature that prevents interrupted play in case of shock or vibration, because a digital chip stores CD data (music) in advance.
Energy Star® Compliance
The Energy Star label is a simple way to identify energy efficient products. These products generate fewer greenhouse gas emissions - which are contributing to the global problem of climate change - because they use less energy. That makes Energy Star products good for the environment and good for your pocketbook.
Equalizer
A component or circuitry within a component that divides audio frequencies into separate bands, allowing the user to change the volume of each band and adjust for differences in listening space acoustics, personal taste or the characteristics of a specific recording.
Exposure
The result of allowing light to act on photosensitive material. The amount of exposure depends on both the intensity of the light and the amount of time the light is allowed to fall on the sensitive material. The exposure is dependant on the aperture size, shutter speed and the sensitivity if the light gathering material.
Extended Data Service (XDS)
Allows broadcasters to insert reference information in their signals such as time/date and channel reference.

F

Fade
Lets you smoothly fade out video and audio for clean scene transitions.
Fader (CD players)
A feature on a CD player that fades out music at the time you specify.
Favorite Channel Memory
Stores up to 16 of your most frequently watched channels, allowing quick and easy scanning of preferred channels.
Fine Pitch Picture Tube
A fine pitch picture tune has smaller, more tightly spaced phosphor dots than normal picture tubes to enable an image with much finer detail.
Fine Pitch Viewing Screen
Enables you to see even the most intricate details in the projected image.
FireWire
Apple's trademarked name for the IEEE 1394 external bus standard. This is an extremely fast computer port that can be used to connect up to 63 devices. FireWire supports isochronous data, meaning that it can deliver data at a guaranteed rate. Other trademarked names for the IEEE 1394 standard include i.link and Lynx.
Flat Picture Tube
Incredibly strong, flat glass screen minimizes distortion for pictures with advanced clarity and detail. Edges of the screen are flattened out giving the impression of a larger, better picture.
Flying Erase Head
Erases unwanted material an instant before new, wanted video is edited over. Provides clean edits with no noise or rainbows.
FM Auto Fine Tuning
An automatic tuning circuit for FM radio reception that constantly samples and corrects the tuner frequency to prevent drifting.
Focus Free
Camera lenses can be categorized by the way they deliver the focused image to the film. If the lens is carefully formulated and positioned it will be able to produce sharp images of subjects from about five feet away to the horizon with no manual adjustment.
Frequency (audio)
Frequency, in music, refers to the pitch of a sound. The frequency of a sound is measured in cycles per second. One cycle is one complete audio waveform. Bass frequencies have a lower number of waveforms per second. Treble frequencies have a very high number of waveforms per second.
Frequency Response
A frequency range that an electronic component can accurately reproduce. Humans can hear from 20Hz to 20,000Hz (20kHz). An ideal component would have a frequency response, totally flat or without deviation, from 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
Fresnel Screen (projection TV)
Helps balance out the light of the image across the screen. Without this screen, there would only be a centre screen bright spot. This screen receives the initial light image from the mirror and is made up of grooves, not unlike the grooves on an original LP record, in a circular pattern.
Front Panel A/V Inputs
Permit easy connection of extra video equipment, such as a camcorder, VCR or video game system. There are three inputs on the front panel of the receiver.
Full Logic
The ability to electronically switch from one function to another function.

G

Game Sync Inputs
These inputs are available on SONY tabletop systems for use with gaming systems. They give the user a virtual surround sound gaming enhancement.
Go To Search
Automatically fast forwards or rewinds to a specified time on a tape.
GPS (Global Positioning System)
Consists of 24 satellites that constantly orbit the earth. GPS reports and records your position and navigational information. GPS technology is free; you just need a GPS receiver. GPS applications include camping, hiking, boating, fishing and driving.
Graphic Equalizer
A device that permits altering the tonal balance of an audio component system at several frequency levels.
GUI (Graphical User Interface)
A GUI makes a TV screen into a window view of A/V receiver operations.

H

Hall Surround Mode
One of several different modes in audio receivers and systems to shape sound to more closely resemble a live performance. Hall setting gives the spacious effect of a concert hall when playing stereo (but not mono) material.
Harmonic Distortion
A deviation from the original signal caused by the presence of harmonic frequencies not in the original signal. Harmonic distortion is supplied as a percentage. The smaller the percentage figure, the better. One percent THD is considered to be the minimum threshold of human hearing.
Hertz (Hz)
The basic unit of sound frequency, measured in cycles per second.
Hi-Fi Audio
An audio signal that is more accurately reproduced for better sound quality.
Hi-Fi VCR
Comes very close to rivalling the sound quality of a laser disc player.
Hi-Resolution CRT
With hi-resolution CRT (Cathode Ray Tube), high definition image sources, such as HDTV, require a picture tube with a small dot pitch to adequately display the details in the picture.
Hi-Resolution Projection CRT
The new hi-resolution projection CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) reduces the electron beam spot size (over previous tubes) to provide an image with the fine details necessary for proper reproduction of digital television pictures.
High Quality (HQ)
Includes comb filter plus white clipping circuit and detail enhancer to give sharper picture.
High Speed Dubbing
Creates good quality recordings (dubs) from one tape to another at double speed.
High Speed Search
The ability to visually search for a specific segment of a video at a faster speed than normal (usually 7 to 21 times faster).
High Speed Shutter
Allows for a sharper picture of a recorded action when played back. Events recorded with a high speed shutter can be paused or played in slow motion with no visual blur. When using a faster shutter speed, more light is required.
High-Pass Crossover
A filter, often found in a powered subwoofer, that accepts the full-range audio signal heading for the main speakers. This filter only passes frequencies falling above a predetermined frequency and it attenuates those below. The goal is to prevent the main speakers from reproducing sounds that would be more accurately reproduced by a subwoofer.
High-Quality Digital Video
Captures the full beauty of movies without sacrificing colour fidelity or detail. The DVD format assures over 500 lines of horizontal resolution, more than twice that of typical home video.
Hold Switch
Deactivates all other function buttons until hold is switched off.
Home Theatre System
Typically, an entertainment system that includes a big screen TV, a Hi-Fi VCR/DVD Player, five or six speakers, appropriate amplification and Dolby® Pro-Logic® Surround Sound.
Horizontal Edge Correction
This feature helps sharpen the edges of objects in the picture. It works in conjunction with the dynamic sharpness control and velocity modulated scan to help produce clean, crisp television images and reduce the unwanted effects of video noise.
Hot Shoe
An accessory shoe mounted on the camcorder that is internally wired to the camcorder power supply. Compatible accessories, such as a video light, can be powered directly, with no wires to connect.

I

Image Stabilization
Eliminates handshake without degrading picture quality or changing image size.
Imaging
The recreation of sound instruments, voices or non-musical elements of a movie soundtrack in a specific location. Imaging is judged to be successful when all of the sounds produced by a single, stationary sound source appear to emanate from a single location.
Impedance (audio)
The amount of resistance to current. In loudspeakers, a device with a lower impedance rating puts greater demands on the power amplifier.
Interactive Multi-Plot Movies
These offer the potential for full-motion interactive video adventure games. These films have enough space on the DVD to offer different directions for plot development and endings, according to choices made by the viewer.
Intercom/Two-way paging
The cordless phone doubles as a two-way intercom system. Found on speakerphone models, this feature allows for conversation between the handset and base station. Two-way paging allows the handset user and the base user to alert each other by pressing a button and emitting an audible tone.
Invar Shadow Mask
Helps provide greater resistance to the effects of heat produced by electron beam bombardment. This protection helps reduce the problem of colour blur from "doming" and assures consistently bright, sharp images in TVs.

J

Jog Shuttle
A rotary dial on a remote control or deck that allows you to locate and isolate a single frame of video information. The jog shuttle is especially useful for editing or instant playback.

K

Kevlar®
A lightweight, rigid and moisture-resistant material. Mass produced speakers usually use paper or plastic cones that can result in distortion. Kevlar cones eliminate the effects of distortion and standing waves in speakers, delivering a pure and crisp sound. Kevlar® is a DuPont registered trademark.

L

LUX
A measurement of light level. Normal house lighting level is 75 to 100 LUX. The lower the rating, the better the indoor recording will be without the use of additional lighting.
Letterboxed
Refers to a program that is presented in or close to its original aspect ratio. The aspect ratio compares the width of the picture to the height. Standard TV broadcasts and cablecasts use a 4:3 aspect ratio, while most movies are shot in an approximately 16:9 ratio.
Level-Balancing
Also known as channel balancing, this is a process that equalizes the levels of each speaker in a home theatre system.
Lines of Resolution
Usually refers to the horizontal resolution capability of the TV, which is an indication of the maximum number of equally spaced black and white vertical line pairs that can be resolved on a TV test pattern. Lines of resolution should not be confused with scan lines.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Screen A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Screen is a flat TV design which requires a small depth (as thin as 2.5 inches). The LCD allows for easy viewing due to the brightness and high contrast the LCD provides, giving the viewer a wider viewing angle with little or no distortion and a vivid picture, even near windows, doors and other light sources.
The listener's ability to pinpoint the source of specific sounds. In home theatre, sounds for on-screen action should appear to come from the screen, while other sounds should seem to originate in a way that's consistent with the environment shown on the screen.
Low-Pass Crossover
A filter, found in a powered subwoofer, that accepts a full range audio signal heading for the subwoofer and passes only those frequencies falling below a predetermined frequency, attenuating those above. The goals are to "feed" the subwoofer only those frequencies that it can comfortably reproduce.
Luminance Noise Reduction (YNR)
In the event of weak signal conditions, YNR reduces video noise (commonly known as "snow") in the picture. Through the menu, an on-screen indicator lets you know if the feature is on or off. For maximum picture detail on a good quality video, YNR should be turned off.

M

MIC Mixing
Connects a microphone to the MIC input so you can sing along with the cassette, CD or radio station.
MPEG2
Gets its name from the Motion Picture Experts Group, an international standards-setting panel. It is a video compression standard that enables more data to be packed onto DVD discs.
MTS (Multi-Channel Television Sound)
Provides stereo broadcast reception for clean, crisp, virtually noise-free audio fidelity. Includes Dbx Noise Reduction system to optimize the soundtrack's full dynamic range.
Macro Focus
Permits the camcorder to move within inches of the subject for extreme close-ups.
Magnetic Shielding
Minimizes magnetic fields in speakers that might interfere with a television picture.
Main Speakers (MAINS)
The left/right speaker pair that flanks the TV screen. They reproduce much of the program's music tracks, special effects and sounds that should come from the left or right of the TV.
Matrix Surround Sound
A two-channel surround sound system that sends a simulated surround sound signal to the rear speakers.
Memo Function
Allows you to save whatever image is on the screen for viewing at a later time. You can save up to 6 screen images that can be displayed simultaneously, or one at a time on the right half of the TV screen.
Mic Mixing (VCRs)
Allows you to add narration to your videos while copying them onto another VCR.
Midrange
The middle range of audio frequencies between approximately 500 and 4,000 Hz. This term is also used to denote the loudspeaker used for reproducing midrange frequencies.
Mode Display
Provides visual readout of current function (play, rewind, fast forward, pause and record) on the VCR display or on the TV screen.
Monitor Function
Allows you to switch back and forth from a TV program to VCR tape. When changing from VCR to TV, the VCR is automatically put in pause mode until you change back to VCR.
Monitor Output
With a Monitor Output, the output jack connects a receiver to the video input of a TV set. The receiver can then be used to switch between external video sources such as a VCR.
Monitor Select
Monitor Select allows you to enjoy optimum picture quality with your current monitor.
MP3
Stands for Moving Picture Experts Group 1, Audio Layer 3. This is an unsecured audio compression process or algorithm used to minimize time for the downloading of near-CD quality music and sound files from the internet.
Multi-ARAS CRT Coating
With Multi-ARAS CRT Coating, the flat, glass CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) faceplate is coated with layers of anti-reflective (AR) and anti-static (AS) compounds to minimize reflections and dust build-up on the TV screen.
Multi-Language Capability (Dialogue)
This feature makes it easier for films to be distributed in multiple languages. The same DVD disc can contain soundtracks in up to 8 different languages.
Multi-Language Subtitles
DVD discs can contain up to 32 different languages for subtitles. Subtitle display can be switched on or off, and you can select the language of your choice from those recorded, by using the remote control.
Multi-Scan System
The Multi-Scan System is compatible with PC/Macintosh computer signals within a specific range. TVs with multi-scan system can process various signals.

N

Narrow Enclosure Speaker
Design Reduces reflected sound for added clarity and less time distortion.
Normal CD to Cassette Edit
The CD changer determines which tracks fit on each side of the tape and will stop after the last track.

O

On-Screen Programming (OSP)
A display of the menu on the TV screen for purposes of programming a VCR. The menu displays time, channel, index and VCR mode.
On-Screen Menu Icons
Allow you to control a variety of settings via remote control, while helping in the recognition of player functions. There are three different menu screens: disc, player and scanning information.
Optical Zoom
Enlarges or magnifies images optically, using a lens system to allow zoom from 8x, 10x or 12x.
Optimal CD to Cassette Edit
The CD changer calculates the number of tracks, in the best order, to optimize the use of available recording time.
Oversampling (CD players)
Multiplying the sampling frequency (44.1kHz) in a CD player to a higher frequency to shift noise components above audible levels. This feature creates a gentler low pass filter with more musical characteristics. This process usually yields a data rate of 352.8 kHz through 8x oversampling.

P

Parental Lock
Many movies on DVD are available with variable ratings capability. According to your parental lock setting, the movie will skip over particular scenes, playing the version that you choose from among those available on the disc. This feature can be set by remote, with a password, to prevent the settings being changed without permission.
Peak Search
Allows the widest dynamic range possible from music recorded on CDs. This feature scans the disc for the highest peak to optimize the recording level on a cassette deck, before recording begins.
Phase
The relationship between different frequencies for the same sound (the relative position of two sound waves with respect to one another, measured in degrees). Sounds are said to be "in phase" if the positive and negative sections of the waveform are precisely aligned.
Player Setup Menu
Allows you to specify your own standard VCR/DVD settings to use by default, eliminating the need to change settings repeatedly.
Portable DVD
A portable version of the DVD player that allows you to play DVD movies anywhere. The player's battery allows continuous play for up to three hours, and it comes with a credit-card sized remote that allows you to control all major DVD functions.
Precision Notch
Filter Acts at 3.58 MHz to separate the colour information from the light channel. TV models with a precision notch filter can achieve 330 lines of horizontal resolution from a RF antenna source.
Preset Scan
A feature that scans all stored AM and FM preset stations on the receiver, pausing for 10 seconds at each station.
Program Out Jacks
These jacks (video, left and right audio) make VCR tape editing easier and provide a fixed audio output for home theatre applications.
Programmable On /Off Timer
Allows you to program your TV set to turn itself on and off at a selected channel and at designated times every day. You can alert yourself to the start of a desired program by having the TV come on with sufficient volume to attract your attention, or you can fall asleep and rest assured that the TV will turn itself off at the proper time. Certain models feature two programmable timers for added flexibility.
Progressive Scan Doubler
Used to display a full frame of video in 1/60th of a second. Essentially, it de-interlaces the incoming video signal and progressively scans the image. With progressive scanning, you generally won't see the horizontal scan lines that are sometimes visible in ordinary television images.
Projection TV Set (PTV)
A term for a big screen TV that uses lenses to project video images on a screen. Rear projection models are one-piece. Front projection systems have a separate projector and screen.

Q

Quartz Tuning
Electronic tuning that requires no setup and automatically locks in to the strongest signal.
Quick Change
This feature allows you to exchange CDs on a carousel player, while a CD is playing.
Quick Set Record (QSR, QTR, XPR)
A one-touch button that allows instant recording for 30, 60 or 90 minutes. This feature eliminates the need to use the programming mode.
Quick Start
A refined start mechanism that results in less time spent waiting for the picture to appear on the screen.

R

Radial Faceplate CRT
With the radial faceplate CRT (Cathode Ray Tube), the radial faceplate picture tubes combined with a short-throw lens system permits the depth of certain projection TV cabinets to be reduced. The CRT's curved faceplate focuses the light beam in the centre of the lenses, where focusing is most accurate.
Real Time Counter
A digital tape counter in VCRs, DVDs, DVD/VCR combos and camcorders that indicates elapsed time in terms of actual hours, minutes and seconds.
Rear Channel Preamp Output
This feature allows you to connect the sound from the rear channel to a separate power amplifier, for more amplification or further processing.
Red Eye Reduction
Some cameras with red eye reduction have a small bright red light, located on the front of the camera, that turns on when the shutter button is first depressed. The eye's iris will close in response to this light, making the opening in the eye smaller. The regular cameraflash then fires with less chance of being reflected back from the rear of the eye.
Region Codes
Codes set for certain geographical regions. This feature was instigated by the movie industry so that you can only view the movie on DVD if it has been released in your geographical region.
Remote Programming
A delayed recording method that uses the remote control and digital readout on the VCR or TV screen.

S

S-Video Input Jack
The 4-pin S-video input jack allows you to connect a DBS (Dolby Digital) system or DVD player directly to the luminance and chrominance circuits of the TV set. By keeping colour and luminance information separate, cross-colour interference is virtually eliminated from the picture.
SACD
Receivers that are DVD-Audio/SACD ready enable an outboard digital decoder to be added to the system. A receiver is considered "future compatible" if it offers 6.1 channel outputs that can be used with a DVD-Audio/SACD player.
SAW Filter
Helps improve TV picture clarity and minimize interference from adjacent channels.
SDTV Compatible
Televisions that are SDTV (Standard TV) compatible enable you to hook up digital component video inputs (Y, Pr, Pb) to the unit for viewing of standard definition programming broadcast in either 480i or 480p formats. In order to view SDTV programming, the TV must be connected to a digital TV set-up box and switched to DTV mode. A DTV signal must be present in your area and the set-up box must be tuned to the proper channel. An external over-the-air antenna may be required. If your cable company "passes through" a network DTV signal unchanged, a set-top box can decode and tune the program. However, standards for cable connectivity have not yet been finalized. Consequently, this product may not be compatible with your cable system.
Self Timer
Operates the camcorder for a specific time then stops recording, allowing the camera operator to appear in their own video.
Set-And-Forget Digital Recording Level
Since a digital compact cassette recorder (DCC) can receive pure digital signals from CD players or other digital sources via coaxial and fibre optic digital inputs, there is no need to adjust an incoming record level for these sources.
Short Wavelength Red Laser
Supplies the shorter wavelength needed to match the tiny DVD pits. The laser has a noise reduction function to suppress interference and it exhibits stable oscillation at high temperature (60 degrees Celsius).
Shuffle Play
The CD player will play the songs from one CD in a random order. Some CD players offer another type of shuffle play, where the songs from all the CDs in the deck are played in random order.
Shutter Speeds
Variable speeds at which the camcorder captures images. The faster the speed, the less blurred the playback image will be. Ideal for sporting events where slow motion or stop action is important.
Signal to Noise Ratio
A comparison between signal and noise levels measured in decibels. A ratio of wanted signal to unwanted noise. This ratio is abbreviated as S/N.
Simulated Stereo Surround Mode
With the Simulated Stereo Surround Mode, one of several different modes in audio receivers and systems shape sound to more closely resemble a live performance. Simulated settings provide a simulated spatial surround sound when playing mono source material.
Simultaneous Record and Play
Users can watch previously recorded material on a DVD recorder while recording current material at the same time.
Skip Search
Enables you to skip through unwanted tape segments at 30-second increments.
Sleep Timer
Used to set a time period after which the unit automatically turns off.
Solid State Sensor
The use of chip technology (MOS or Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor and CCD or Charged Couple Device) to produce images. Pixels are the individual sensors making up the solid state device.
Soundstage
A sonic recreation of an environment in three dimensions: front to back, side to side and up and down. In a home theatre, the soundstage's sonics should match the visuals that appear on the TV screen in terms of placement, size and imaging.
Spatial Sound
Gives a wider stereo effect in some tabletop systems. This feature is especially handy for listening to music from monaural sources and making the sound stage seem wider when listening to the system in a small room.
Spatializer 3D Stereo
A stereo enhancement technology that creates an enveloping, "three-dimensional" surround sound listening experience from just two speakers.
Spatially Equalized Speaker (SES)
System This system places the speakers inside acoustic chambers. The sound resonates through an acoustically matched baffle system, and projects through thin grilles on either side of the TV screen. This system allows for the use of larger speakers, providing greatly improved sound quality and proper sound imaging.
Speaker Level
The signal output after the amplifier stage. This is the signal that is fed to the speakers.
Special Effects
Unusual sounds that are contained in a program's soundtrack.
Spectrum Analyzer
A portion of the display panel of a receiver or shelf system reserved for viewing the relative levels of several bands of audio frequencies.
Split-Screen Display
Lets you view two programs at once by dividing the screen down the middle. Each program is shown at full height, with one program on the left side and the other on the right. The feature is similar to picture-in-picture, but at a much larger size. Audio is played from the program on the left. To listen to audio from the program on the right, simply switch the pictures using the SWAP button.
SQPB (S-VHS Quasi Playback/S-VHS ET)
Allows a TV/VCR combo to play tapes recorded in S-VHS format. Although the feature does not produce S-VHS resolution, it allows playback of otherwise incompatible Super VHS tapes.
Stadium Surround Mode
One of several different modes in audio receivers and systems to shape sound to more closely resemble a live performance. Stadium Mode recreates the reverberation and open air atmosphere of a rock concert or sporting event when playing stereo (but not mono) source material.
Steering
The critical part of the Dolby® Pro Logic®. Most soundtracks are mixed for playback on multi-speaker systems, using "cues" that steer specific sounds to specific speakers. In a home theatre system, the DPL processor typically does the steering to five or six speakers.
Stereo Audio
Plays hi-fi/stereo rental tapes and records stereo TV broadcasts when used with a stereo TV or decoder using two sound tracks at the top edge of the videotape.
Stereo Headphone Jack
Allows you to connect optional stereo headphones to the unit, so you can listen to your favourite TV shows without disturbing others or hear TV audio in an unusually noisy environment. The mini-jack configuration accepts either 8-ohm or 16-ohm mini-plug headphones.
Stereo/SAP Reception with dbx Noise Reduction
This feature has a built-in stereo decoder that can receive both TV stereo and separate audio program (SAP) telecasts where available. A dbx noise reduction system helps provide clear, crisp sound with proper stereo separation.
Subwoofer
A speaker that is dedicated to reproducing the lowest octaves on a soundtrack. Powered subwoofers include their own amplification, while passive models must be driven by external amplification. Most powered subwoofers include crossover circuitry that blends the subwoofer's output with the main speakers.
Super Invar Shadow Mask
Achieves a breakthrough level of picture quality on a flat screen. By applying the optimal amount of vertical tension to the shadow mask inside the panel, this feature overcomes the colour shift problem common with conventional flat CRTs. It also raises the mask aperture by 20 percent, compared to previous models, to deliver extremely bright pictures.
Super-VHS ET Recording
Super-VHS ET (expanded technology) recording allows recording of S-VHS signals on ordinary VHS tape. This expands the benefits of S-VHS to a larger audience. VHS-C tapes are widely available at a lower cost.
Surround Output Level
Allows adjustment of the rear speaker level relative to the front speaker level according to viewing location and individual preference.
Surround Sound
An audio reproduction system using four or more speakers to simulate the three-dimensional effect of a live music performance or a cinematic environment. With surround sound, the phase of the original sound is delayed from a two-channel source, creating a surround effect and allowing you to simulate stereo sound even from a monaural source.
Surround Sound (home theatre)
Surround sound is the basis of a home theatre. It is created by a surround sound processor, multi-channel amplification and five or six speakers. Surround sound envelopes the viewer/listener with sound, includes special effects and simulates the ambience of the environments shown on the TV.
Surround Sound Modes
A feature of A/V receivers that simulates the ambience of various sound environments with preset configurations for jazz, rock, concert and stadium.
Surround Sound Processor/Amp
Usually includes power amplification for the one centre speaker and two surround speakers in a home theatre system.
Surround Speakers (Surrounds)
The two speakers in a home theatre system that are placed in the rear of the room or to the sides of the primary seating position. They are critical in producing surround sound.
Synchro Edit
Allows you to activate play/record functions of two units simultaneously. This requires two units that can utilize a synchro cord (optional with most VCRs). This is a useful editing feature.
Synchro Start
Allows your CD player and cassette deck to operate in sync, simplifying the CD to tape music transfer process.

T

Tally Light
A red light on the front of the camcorder that lets your subject know when the camcorder is recording.
Time Base Corrector (TBC)
Digitally removes jitter from fluctuating video signals to deliver stable picture even with old tapes. Also eliminates colour distortion caused by jitter in the chroma signal.
Test Tone
A feature that offers individual adjustment of all four channels (left, centre, right and rear). While in the usual listening position, adjust the relative volume of each channel by using a remote control.
Theatre Surround Mode
One of several different modes in audio receivers and systems that shape sound to more closely resemble a live performance. Theatre mode recreates the same intimate feeling you get in a theatre when watching plays, musicals and solo performances.
THX
THX is an enhancement, engineered by Lucasfilm Ltd., of a Dolby® Pro Logic® scheme. A THX system must have identical main and centre speakers, special dipolar surround speakers, at least one subwoofer, a special amount of power and a special surround sound processor.
Timbre
The "voice" or basic tonal quality of a speaker. To avoid distractions and achieve realism in a home theatre system, each of the system's speakers should have an identical, or at least similar, timbre.
Time Lapse
Records a single frame of video footage at preset time intervals. This feature compresses the time of slow moving objects. When video is played back, events that take minutes or hours to unfold in normal time are compressed to seconds.
Time Scan/Speedwatch
Allows you to skip commercials and previews during playback.
Time Search
Locates the precise position of recordings by elapsed time on a VCR.
Time SlipTM Function (Panasonic)
By pressing the Time Slip button once during recording, a user can play back a scene recorded 30 seconds before or any time frame they wish. Functions with CHASING PLAYBACK and SIMULTANEOUS RECORD AND PLAY (all a part of DVD-RAM technology).
Titler
Allows you to add titles to your videos. Camcorders or VCRs can have either preprogrammed titles to choose from or an alphanumeric keypad (character generator) that allows you to create your own titles.
Tollsaver
With the ring delay switch set to toll saver, an incoming call is answered on the fourth ring, if no previous messages have been received, and on the second ring otherwise. This feature tells the user if there are no recorded messages, and the user simply hangs up before the fourth ring.
Treble
The upper range of audio frequencies, above approximately 4,000Hz.
Twin Dome Sound System
Provides high-quality audio with space-saving design. The dual-magnet speakers are located on either side of the picture tube to provide optimum stereo separation, while facilitating placement of the TV in a wall unit.

U

Unified Remote Control
Enables the user to control other products (i.e., TV, VCR, Laser disc) from the same manufacturer with a single remote control.
Universal Multibrand Remote
Can be programmed to operate any TV, as well as a VCR and a cable converter.

V

V-Chip Program Lockout
This feature allows parents to use television rating codes to block programs that they feel are inappropriate for their children to view. The V-Chip can be turned on and off through the on-screen menu, using a four digit, user-programmed code. Once you choose an appropriate ratings level, the V-Chip reads the ratings codes transmitted with each program, compares it with the level you set and automatically denies access to any programming that exceeds your rating. If a program is denied, a blocking message will appear on screen and the audio will be muted. Activating the V-Chip program lockout also temporarily disables the picture-in-picture function.
VCR Plus+TM
Allows you to program the VCR by entering a three to eight digit code listed in TV Guide or local newspaper publications.
VISS (VHS Index Search System)
Automatically places a signal on the control track of a tape at the beginning of each recorded program. This allows you to access the desired program by using the fast-forward or rewind buttons. The tape will stop at the signal.
Velocity Modulated Scan
An advanced circuitry located along the neck of the CRT that senses transitions from dark to light in the video signal. The black and white portions of the signal are sped up and slowed down respectively, resulting in sharp dark to light transitions and outstanding edge definition.
Vertical Edge Correction
This circuit works in conjunction with the digital comb filter in a TV to sharpen the horizontal edges of objects in the picture.
Vertical Position Adjustment
Allows you to raise or lower the image on the screen to suit you viewing preference.
Video Input Labelling
Allows you to assign an on-screen label to each of the video inputs on the TV for easy identification of the video signal source. Video inputs can be labelled VCR, DVD or DBS instead of Video 1, Video 2, etc. Up to eight characters per label can be used.
Video Noise Reduction (VNR)
In the event of weak signal conditions, video noise reduction reduces the noise, or "snow," in the luminance channel. It is important to note that VNR should remain off for maximum picture detail when receiving a strong signal or viewing high-quality video from sources such as DVDs or laser discs.
Viewing Screen, New VVLL
The new VVLL (variable vertical lenticular lens) viewing screen on projection TVs transfers more light to the outer edges of the picture to improve the overall brightness uniformity, resulting in a more natural looking image.
Voice Activated Recording
The answering system automatically stops recording an incoming message if the caller is silent for eight seconds or more.

W

Warranty
A contract between the purchaser of a product and the company that produced the product that details the components, duration and circumstances by which a defect in the product will be remedied.
Watt (amplifiers)
A unit of measure for the output of an amplifier.
Wide Screen Mode, 16:9
Records images in a compressed form for playback on a 16:9 TV to show cinematic wide screen images. Also known as letterbox format.
Wideband Video Amplifier
Expands the video signal frequency response to more than 10MHz and allows for a horizontal resolution capability of more than 800 lines, depending on the source.
Widescreen
Widescreen is another term for a letterboxed program. Letterboxed programs generally fill the entire screen on a widescreen TV.
Wind Switch
Suppresses the rumbling background noise that might be heard on recorded video when the wind is blowing.
Woofer
A loudspeaker used for reproducing bass frequencies.

Z

Zoom
Lens A lens with variable focal lengths that can be adjusted to magnify subjects. With the touch of a button, the user can zoom in to capture details of the subject or zoom out to capture the entire scene.

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