Generally, lighting combines 3 types of lighting: overhead, task & accent, which each serves different purposes. Space can be emphasized through several light sources.
Also referred to as "ambient" or "general", it provides the overall lighting for a room - usually a ceiling fixture. Be sure to consider height/space restrictions before buying.
Task lighting directs light where it's needed most - for reading, kitchen work etc. Increasing the amount of focused light can help compensate for small print or poor contrast.
Accent lighting emphasizes a specific spot & can be dramatic, calming or functional. Post lights are ideal for lighting a path & spotlights draw attention to art or a trophy.